Diaphragm walls have a static and / or sealing function and can serve as cut-off walls for dams or excavation pits, as foundations or as enclosures of structures.
They are executed as concrete or steel-reinforced concrete walls, built from ground level. They are considered very resistant to deformation and virtually water-impermeable. They are excavated in sections by crawler cranes using suitable diaphragm wall grabs or cutters, with the aid of a stabilizing fluid, between previously fabricated guide walls, which serve primarily to guide the excavator, allow fluctuations in level of the stabilizing fluid and carry temporary loads from the reinforcement or stop end elements. When the final depth is reached, temporary or permanent stop ends are installed in the trench, the stabilizing fluid is desanded and reinforcement cages are installed. Then the concreting is carried out.
In the course of excavating the adjoining panel, temporary stop ends are removed for re-use.